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Table of Contents  


Upcoming Seminars
Past Seminars
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Fast AI at the edge for particle physics
Date:
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January 21, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker:
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Constraining the distribution of smallscale structure in our universe will allow us to probe alternatives to the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. Strong gravitational lensing offers a unique window into small dark matter halos because these halos impart a gravitational lensing signal even if they do not host luminous galaxies. However, the millions of free parameters in gravitational lensing by a substructure population makes directly evaluating the likelihood intractable. In this talk, I will present our group’s work using simulationbased inference techniques to return posterior estimates of the distribution of subhalos inside galaxymass host halos. We combine a hierarchical inference approach with some of the tools used in sequential neural posterior estimation to reliably infer the subhalo mass function across a variety of configurations. We find that our technique scales efficiently to large lens populations; with 10 strong gravitational lenses we forecast a constraining power competitive with current flux ratio statistics, and with 100 lenses we find that our technique returns sensitivities comparable with current Milky Way satellite constraints. In the 1000 lens regime accessible by future surveys, we demonstrate an unprecedented constraining power on the subhalo mass function. Our work reveals the potential of strong lensing imaging to probe dark matter at small scales.
Jennifer Ngadiuba (FNAL)
The Large Hadron Collider at CERN provides up to 200 protonproton interactions every 25 ns leading to the production of thousands of charged and neutral particles per second passing through the detector volume. As the detectors consist of hundreds of millions of sensors to record the passage of each particle, the experiments at the LHC have to deal with extreme data rates of hundreds of TB per second. To bring down these rates to manageable levels for offline processing and storage, the experiments implement a trigger system that analyze and accept collision events in realtime. There is a fundamental challenge in doing so due to the very strict latency and amount of resources available to perform such analysis. Therefore, in order to preserve most of the interesting physics, basic algorithms are executed on FieldProgrammable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Most recently we have started exploring and developing new AI techniques to replace these rules with an advanced analysis that could offer enhanced accuracy while meeting such strict system constraints. In this talk, I will discuss the recent developments in the field of fast AI to achieve such goal, focusing on the application to LHC experiments where the "big data" environment is among the most challenging in HEP.
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The Learnt Geometry of Collider Events
Date:
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January 28, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Jack Collins (SLAC)
Particle collider events, when imbued with a metric which characterizes the 'distance' between two events (such as an Earth Movers Distance), can be thought of as populating a data manifold in a metric space. The geometric properties of this manifold reflect the physics encoded in the distance metric. I will show how the geometry of collider events can be probed at varying scales of interest using a class of machine learning architectures called Variational Autoencoders. I will introduce notions of scaling dimensionality of representations learnt by the VAE that I believe are novel, and which reflect and quantify the underlying complexity of the training dataset. If there is time, I will also describe two potentially novel approaches to unsupervised classification that are inspired by these notions of dimensionality.
Past Seminars
Reconstructing the Subhalo Mass Function from Strong Gravitational Lensing using SimulationBased Inference
Date: November 19, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Sebastian WagnerCarena (Stanford)
Constraining the distribution of smallscale structure in our universe will allow us to probe alternatives to the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. Strong gravitational lensing offers a unique window into small dark matter halos because these halos impart a gravitational lensing signal even if they do not host luminous galaxies. However, the millions of free parameters in gravitational lensing by a substructure population makes directly evaluating the likelihood intractable. In this talk, I will present our group’s work using simulationbased inference techniques to return posterior estimates of the distribution of subhalos inside galaxymass host halos. We combine a hierarchical inference approach with some of the tools used in sequential neural posterior estimation to reliably infer the subhalo mass function across a variety of configurations. We find that our technique scales efficiently to large lens populations; with 10 strong gravitational lenses we forecast a constraining power competitive with current flux ratio statistics, and with 100 lenses we find that our technique returns sensitivities comparable with current Milky Way satellite constraints. In the 1000 lens regime accessible by future surveys, we demonstrate an unprecedented constraining power on the subhalo mass function. Our work reveals the potential of strong lensing imaging to probe dark matter at small scales.
“All the Lenses”: Toward LargeScale Hierarchical Inference of the Hubble Constant Using Bayesian Deep Learning
Date: October 29, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Ji Won Park (Stanford)
Precise constraints on the Hubble constant (H0) can shed light on the nature of dark matter and dark energy, arguably the biggest mysteries of modern cosmology. An astrophysical phenomenon known as strong gravitational lensing enables direct measurements of H0. Seven strong gravitational lenses have been “handanalyzed” over the last ten years, but nextgeneration telescope surveys will increase the sample size to tens of thousands of lenses, creating a demand for novel methods that can model large volumes of noisy data. I demonstrate the use of Bayesian neural networks (BNNs) in rapidly extracting cosmological information from the image, catalog, and time series data associated with these lenses. Quantifying various sources of uncertainty is key to minimizing systematic bias on H0. Being both accurate and efficient, the BNN pipeline is a promising tool that can combine information from all the lenses  with varying types and signaltonoise ratios  into a largescale hierarchical Bayesian model.
Blackbox optimisation with Local Generative Surrogates and its application in the SHiP experiment
Date: October 22, 2021 10:00 am Pacific
Speaker: Sergey Shirobokov (Twitter)
We propose a novel method for gradientbased optimisation of blackbox simulators using local surrogate models (https://arxiv.org/abs/2002.04632). In domains such as HEP, many processes are modeled with nondifferentiable simulators (such as GEANT4). However, often one wants to optimise some parameters of the detector or other apparatus relying on the knowledge from the simulator. To address such cases, we utilise deep generative models to approximate a simulator in the local neighbourhood and perform optimisation. In cases when the optimised parameter space is constrained to a low dimension subspace, we observe that our method outperforms Bayesian optimisation, numerical optimisation, and REINFORCEbased approaches.
Vector Symbolic Architectures for Autonomous Science
Date: October 8, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Michael Furlong (University of Waterloo)
Automating exploration often involves information theoretic cost functions which can be expensive to compute. Planetary missions are constrained by size, weight, and power concerns, as well as environmental conditions, that limit the type and amount of computing that can be deployed on these missions.
Neuromorphic computing promises to reduce power requirements needed for deploying highperformance computing, enabling constrained systems to be more capable, but they can be challenging to program. Vector Symbolic Architectures, originally developed in the context of cognitive modelling, have proven useful as a paradigm for programming these computers.
In this talk we will be discussing how a particular Vector Symbolic Architecture can be used to efficiently execute two tasks commonly found in autonomous science applications: anomaly detection and Bayesian optimization. We will show how these algorithms can be computed with time and memory complexity that is constant in the number of observations collected, making them favourable algorithms for longterm operations in resource constrained computing environments.
Bayesian Techniques for Accelerator Characterization and Control
Date: October 1, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Ryan Roussel (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
Accelerators and other large experimental facilities are complex, noisy systems that are difficult to characterize and control efficiently. Bayesian statistical modeling techniques are well suited to this task, as they minimize the number of experimental measurements needed to create robust models, by incorporating prior, but not necessarily exact, information about the target system. Furthermore, these models inherently consider noisy and/or uncertain measurements and can react to timevarying systems. Here we will describe several advanced methods for using these models in accelerator characterization and optimization. First, we describe a method for rapid, turnkey exploration of input parameter spaces using littletono prior information about the target system. Second, we highlight how these models can take hysteresis effects into account and create insitu models of individual magnetic elements.
Computational Imaging: Reconciling Physical and Learned Models
Date: July 2, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Ulugbek Kamilov (Washington University in St. Louis)
Computational imaging is a rapidly growing area that seeks to enhance the capabilities of imaging instruments by viewing imaging as an inverse problem. There are currently two distinct approaches for designing computational imaging methods: modelbased and learningbased. Modelbased methods leverage analytical signal properties and often come with theoretical guarantees and insights. Learningbased methods leverage datadriven representations for best empirical performance through training on large datasets. This talk presents Regularization by Artifact Removal (RARE), as a framework for reconciling both viewpoints by providing a learningbased extension to the classical theory. RARE relies on pretrained “artifactremoving deep neural nets” for infusing learned prior knowledge into an inverse problem, while maintaining a clear separation between the prior and physicsbased acquisition model. Our results indicate that RARE can achieve stateoftheart performance in different computational imaging tasks, while also being amenable to rigorous theoretical analysis. We will focus on the applications of RARE in biomedical imaging, including magnetic resonance and tomographic imaging.
This talk will be based on the following references:
J. Liu, Y. Sun, C. Eldeniz, W. Gan, H. An, and U. S. Kamilov, “RARE: Image Reconstruction using Deep Priors Learned without Ground Truth,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 10881099, October 2020.
Z. Wu, Y. Sun, A. Matlock, J. Liu, L. Tian, and U. S. Kamilov, “SIMBA: Scalable Inversion in Optical Tomography using Deep Denoising Priors,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 11631175, October 2020.
J. Liu, Y. Sun, W. Gan, X. Xu, B. Wohlberg, and U. S. Kamilov, “SGDNet: Efficient ModelBased Deep Learning with Theoretical Guarantees,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imag., vol. 7, pp. 598610, June 2021.
Deep Learning for Anomaly Detection
Date: June 25, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Ziyi Yang (Stanford)
Anomaly Detection (AD) refers to the process of identifying abnormal observations that deviate from what is defined as normal. With applications in many realworld scenarios, anomaly detection has become an important research field in ML and AI. However, detecting anomalies in highdimensional space is challenging. In some highdimensional cases, previous AD algorithms fail to correctly model the normal data distribution. Also the understanding on the detection mechanism of AD models remained limited. To address these challenges and questions, in this talk, first I will present the Regularized Cycleconsistent GAN (RCGAN) that introduces a penalty distribution in the modeling of normal data distribution. We theoretically show that the penalty distribution regularizes the discriminator and generator towards the normal data manifold. Second, we explore anomaly detection with domain adaptation where the normal data distribution is nonstatic. We propose to extract the common features of source and target domain data and train an anomaly detector using the extracted features.
Slides and video.
MachineLearning for Modeling Complex Materials and Media
Date: June 18, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Serveh Kamrava (USC)
In recent years, machine learning (ML) approaches have made it possible to extract and explore intricate patterns from big data. One of the fields that can benefit from the computational advantages that ML offers is materials characterization where we have complex heterogeneous morphology. The morphology of complex systems is one of the determinant elements that control a variety of their properties, such as flow, transport, and mechanical behaviors. Such properties are often estimated using experimental and computational methods, which can be very costly and timedemanding. As such, faster and more automatic methods are required. Machine learning provides an alternative solution for this problem. In this presentation, I will present a deep learning method that can take the 3D morphology of complex materials and estimate their transport properties. Then, I will talk about a novel method using which one can quantify the accuracy of augmentation methods for adding more data to ML and identify the method that can provide the best set of data by minimizing the discrepancy and expanding the variability. For the next topic, I will discuss the application of deep learning for dynamic data when they change with time for a transport problem on a complex membrane system. I close this particular topic by describing how the governing equations can be used in ML for filling the gap in data and reducing the amount of data for ML. These results will be compared with a fully datadriven ML method.
Autonomous analysis of synchrotron Xray experiments with applications to metal nanoparticle synthesis
Date: May 7, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Sathya Chitturi (Stanford)
A critical step in developing autonomous pipelines for materials synthesis experiments is automatic interpretation of characterization experiments. In this talk, we present an example of a closedloop bayesian optimization pipeline for metal nanoparticle synthesis using realtime information from Smallangle Xray Scattering (SAXS) experiments. This approach has previously successfully created libraries of monodisperse Pd nanoparticles with userspecified sizes. In addition, we describe a CNNbased method used to interpret complementary Xray diffraction data. Here CNN regression models are trained for each crystal class to predict lattice parameters for the corresponding unitcell. A key component of this work involves data augmentation schemes which capture sources of experimental noise in order to improve model generalizability. The lattice parameter estimates are subsequently refined using an automatic wholepattern fitting algorithm.
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Going Beyond Global Optima with Bayesian Algorithm Execution
Date: April 30, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Willie Neiswanger (Stanford)
In many real world problems, we want to infer some property of an expensive blackbox function f, given a budget of T function evaluations. One example is budget constrained global optimization of f, for which Bayesian optimization is a popular method. Other properties of interest include local optima, level sets, integrals, or graphstructured information induced by f. Often, we can find an algorithm A to compute the desired property, but it may require far more than T queries to execute. Given such an A, and a prior distribution over f, we refer to the problem of inferring the output of A using T evaluations as Bayesian Algorithm Execution (BAX). In this talk, we present a procedure for this task, InfoBAX, that sequentially chooses queries that maximize mutual information with respect to the algorithm's output. Applying this to Dijkstra's algorithm, for instance, we infer shortest paths in synthetic and realworld graphs with blackbox edge costs. Using evolution strategies, we yield variants of Bayesian optimization that target local, rather than global, optima. We discuss InfoBAX, and give background on other informationbased methods for Bayesian optimization as well as on the probabilistic uncertainty models which underlie these methods.
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Signal Decomposition via Distributed Optimization
Date: April 23, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Bennet Meyers (Stanford)
We consider the wellstudied problem of decomposing a time series signal into some components, each with different characteristics. We propose a simple and general framework for decomposition of a signal into a number of signal classes, each defined by a loss function and possibly constraints, via optimization. We describe a number of useful signal classes, and give a distributed optimization method for computing the decomposition, that scales well and is extensible. The method finds the optimal decomposition when the signal class constraints and loss functions are convex, and appears to be a good heuristic when they are not.
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Equitable Valuation of Data
Date: April 16, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Amirata Ghorbani (Stanford)
As data becomes the fuel driving technological and economic growth, a fundamental challenge is how to quantify the value of data in algorithmic predictions and decisions. For example, in healthcare and consumer markets, it has been suggested that individuals should be compensated for the data that they generate, but it is not clear what is an equitable valuation for individual data. In this talk, we discuss a principled framework to address data valuation in the context of supervised machine learning. Given a learning algorithm trained on a number of data points to produce a predictor, we propose data Shapley as a metric to quantify the value of each training datum to the predictor performance. Data Shapley value uniquely satisfies several natural properties of equitable data valuation. We introduce Monte Carlo and gradientbased methods to efficiently estimate data Shapley values in practical settings where complex learning algorithms, including neural networks, are trained on large datasets. We then briefly discuss the notion distributional Shapley, where the value of a point is defined in the context of underlying data distribution.
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Neural Networks with Feature Sparsity
Date: April 2, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Ismael Lemhadri (Stanford)
Much work has been done recently to make neural networks more interpretable, and one approach is to arrange for the network to use only a subset of the available features. In linear models, Lasso (or L1regularized) regression assigns zero weights to the most irrelevant or redundant features, and is widely used in data science. However the Lasso only applies to linear models. Here we introduce LassoNet, a neural network framework with global feature selection. Our approach enforces a hierarchy: specifically a feature can participate in a hidden unit only if its linear representative is active. Unlike other approaches to feature selection for neural nets, our method uses a modified objective function with constraints, and so integrates feature selection with the parameter learning directly. As a result, it delivers an entire regularization path of solutions with a range of feature sparsity. On systematic experiments, LassoNet significantly outperforms stateoftheart methods for feature selection and regression. The LassoNet method uses projected proximal gradient descent, and generalizes directly to deep networks. It can be implemented by adding just a few lines of code to a standard neural network.
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Machine Learning for Big Data Cosmology and High Energy Physics
Date: February 23, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Agnes Ferte
In the context of future galaxy surveys such as the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), I proposed an application of unsupervised learning algorithms such as SelfOrganizing Maps to efficiently explore the theory space of cosmological models. In the first part of my talk, I will explain the challenges motivating this research and present our first results aiming at categorizing theories of gravity probed by weak gravitational lensing, one of the main cosmological observables that will be measured by LSST. Many experiments of the FPD at SLAC present computational challenges such as data reduction on the fly or physics simulations that require similar machine learning applications and developments. In the second part of my talk, I will present how I will expand the use of unsupervised learning algorithms to other areas at the FPD and contribute to the application of machine learning to LSST, other cosmology experiments and high energy physics experiments.
Beyond Deep Learning in Fundamental Physics
Date: February 16, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Lukas Heinrich
The experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are testament to the success of the reductionist approach to science: the analytical modelling of the 100 million data channels of HEP is patently hard but through a deep, hierarchical stack of simulation across many length and energyscales and a physicsdriven, expertdesigned dimensionality reduction procedure, inference on the fundamental parameters of quantum field theory is achievable. In recent years, advancements in Machine Learning techniques have provided physicists promising new tools to analyze the LHC data. To exploit them fundamental questions need to be addressed: How do we formulate ML optimization goals to align with our science goals? How can we translate known constraints in the data into appropriate inductive biases of the trained algorithms? Can we express and incorporate uncertainties and maintain interpretability to achieve safe inference? In light of these challenges I will discuss in this talk recent progress i endtoend gradientbased optimization, Active Learning, simulatorassisted probabilistic programming.
Machine Learning for Dark Matter
Date: February 12, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Bryan Ostdiek (Harvard University)
There is five times more dark matter than ordinary matter in the universe, but we have almost no idea what it is. To learn about the possible interactions of dark matter, physicists use complementary data from cosmological probes, astroparticle observations, and particle colliders. There is an increasing need for advanced analytics and machine learning to process these vastly growing datasets. This talk details examples using machine learning in each of the three realms. First, I demonstrate using image recognition techniques on images of strongly lensed galaxies to constrain dark matter properties. Second, I use machine learning to uncover the phase space distribution of dark matter near the Earth, which directly impacts the interpretation of direct detection experiments. Finally, I examine how unsupervised learning methods can aid collider searches for dark matter. The talk concludes with comments on the intersection of machine learning and physics.
Searching for dark matter in the sky with machine learning
Date: February, 2021 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Siddharth Mishra Sharma (New York University)
The next decade will see a deluge of new cosmological data that will enable us to accurately map out the distribution of matter in the local Universe, image billion of stars and galaxies to unprecedented precision, and create highresolution maps of the Milky Way. Signatures of new physics may be hiding in these observations, offering significant discovery potential for uncovering physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular the nature of dark matter. At the same time, the complexity of astrophysical data provides significant challenges to carrying out these searches using conventional methods. I will describe how overcoming these issues will require a qualitative shift in how we approach modeling and inference in cosmology, connecting particle physics properties to cosmological observables and bringing together several recent advances in machine learning and simulationbased inference. I will present several applications of these methods. I will show how they can be used to combine information from tens of thousands of strong gravitational lensing systems in order to infer structural properties of our Universe that can be directly linked to the microphysical properties of dark matter. Finally, I will present an application to the longstanding problem of understanding the nature of the Galactic Center gammaray excess, highlighting challenges associated with analyzing real data and discussing ways to overcome them
For the slides and the recording of Siddharth's seminar, contact Kazu as it was requested not to make a publiclyopen access.
Online Bayesian Optimization for the SECAR Recoil Mass Separator
Date: December 11, 2020 11:00 am Pacific
Speaker: Sara Miskovich (Michigan State University)
The SEparator for CApture Reactions (SECAR) is a nextgeneration recoil separator system under commissioning at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) and Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University. SECAR is optimized for the direct measurement of capture reactions on unstable nuclei that drive some stars to explode and synthesize crucial nuclei that make up our universe. Once SECAR is operational, these precise measurements will improve our understanding of astrophysical processes such as Xray bursts, novae and supernovae. To maximize the performance of the device, ion optical optimizations and careful beam alignment need to be achieved, which can be time consuming and difficult to achieve through manual tuning. This talk will focus on the first development of an online Bayesian optimization that utilizes a Gaussian process model to tune the beam through the complex system and improve its ion optical properties by optimizing magnet settings. The method is shown to improve recoil separator performance and save operational time for future scientific experiments.
Quantum Kernel Methods for the Classification of Highdimensional Data on a Superconducting Processor
Date: December 11, 2020 1:00 pm Pacific
Speaker: Evan Peters (Fermilab, University of Waterloo IQC)
We present a quantum kernel method for highdimensional data analysis using the Google Sycamore superconducting quantum computer architecture. Our experiment utilizes the largest number of qubits to date compared to prior quantum kernel method experiments. We study an application in the domain of cosmology  a benchmark supernova type classification problem using 67 features with no dimensionality reduction and without vanishing kernel elements. While most experimental work to date has considered synthetic datasets of low dimension, and disregarded the importance of shot statistics and mean kernel element size, we show that the analysis of real, high dimensional datasets requires careful attention to these features when constructing a circuit
Machine Learning with Quantum Computers
Date: December 4, 2020 10:00 am Pacific
Speaker: Maria Schuld (Xanadu, University of KwaZuluNatal)
A growing number of papers are searching for intersections between High Energy Physics and the emerging field of Quantum Machine Learning. This talk gives an introduction to the latter, while critically discussing potential connections to HEP. A focus lies on the most popular approach to machine learning with quantum computers, which interprets quantum circuits as machine learning models that load input data and produce predictions. By optimizing the quantum circuit, the "quantum model" can be trained like a neural network. To offer a glimpse of the opportunities and challenges of this approach, I will discuss different aspects of such "variational quantum machine learning algorithms", including their close links to kernel methods and integration into modern machine learning pipelines.
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Reservoir computing using digital logic gate networks
Date: November 20, 2020 11:00 am Pacific
Speaker: Heidi Komkov (The Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland)
As Moore's law is coming to an end, new types of computing architectures must be explored to continue the pace of advancement in computing power. At the same time, applications of machine learning are exploding. Reservoir computing is a braininspired machine learning method which has shown promise for very rapid time series prediction. The reservoir functions as a recurrent neural network, and substituting a physical system for a computerbased simulation has the potential to allow computation at high speed and very low power. We use an autonomous Boolean network as a reservoir, which uses individual CMOS digital logic gates to implement the nonlinear elements used in machine learning architectures. In this talk I'll show results from an field programmable gate array (FPGA) reservoir and my designs of a 180nm application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that has been fabricated this year
Power efficient hardware accelerators for machine learning, combinatorial optimization, and pattern matching applications
Date: November 13, 2020 11:00 am Pacific
Speaker: Cat Graves (Hewlett Packard Labs)
The dramatic rise of dataintensive workloads has revived specialpurpose hardware and architectures for continuing improvements in computational speed and energy efficiency. While traditional CMOS ASICs deliver some performance gains, typically by limiting data movement or implementing “inmemory computation”, such approaches still suffer from low power efficiency. New proposals leveraging emerging nonvolatile resistive RAM (ReRAM) devices for inmemory computation are highly attractive in a variety of application domains. While originally developed for as digital (binary) high density nonvolatile memories, ReRAM devices have demonstrated a wide range of behaviors and properties – such as a wide range of tunable analog resistance and nonlinear dynamics – which motivate their use in novel functions and new computational models. Many recent inmemory compute studies have focused on crossbar circuit architectures, demonstrating their application for neural networks, scientific computing and signal processing. However, other circuit primitives – such as content addressable memories (CAMs) and combined systems such as crossbar arrays and nonlinear elements– have shown further promise for mapping a diverse range of complimentary computational models such as finite state machines, pattern matching, hashing algorithms and Hopfield neural networks for tackling optimization problems. In this talk, I will review the exciting opportunities for inmemory computational primitives levering nonvolatile ReRAM devices and their circuits and architectures for enabling low power, highthroughput computation in a variety of application domains. Recent lab demonstrations of various applications mapped to these inmemory computational circuit primitives based on memristor devices will be shown and I will also give an outlook on performance.
Generative Models and Symmetries
Date: November 5, 2020 10:00 am Pacific
Speaker: Danilo Rezende (Google DeepMind)
The study of symmetries in Physics has revolutionized our understanding of the world. Inspired by this, I will focus on our recent work on incorporating Guage symmetries into normalizing flow generative models and its potential applications in the sciences and ML.
MultiObjective Bayesian Optimization for Accelerator Tuning
Date: October 30, 2020 1:00 pm
Speaker: Ryan Roussell (University of Chicago)
Particle accelerators require constant tuning during operation to meet beam quality, total charge and particle energy requirements for use in a wide variety of physics, chemistry and biology experiments. Maximizing the performance of an accelerator facility often necessitates multiobjective optimization, where operators must balance tradeoffs between multiple objectives simultaneously, often using limited, temporally expensive beam observations. Usually, accelerator optimization problems are solved offline, prior to actual operation, with advanced beamline simulations and parallelized optimization methods (NSGAII, Swarm Optimization). Unfortunately, it is not feasible to use these methods for online multiobjective optimization, since beam measurements can only be done in a serial fashion, and these optimization methods require a large number of measurements to converge to a useful solution. Here, we introduce a multiobjective Bayesian optimization scheme, which finds the full Pareto front of an accelerator optimization problem efficiently in a serialized manner and is thus a critical step towards practical online multiobjective optimization in accelerators. This method uses a set of Gaussian process surrogate models, along with a multiobjective acquisition function, which reduces the number of observations needed to converge by at least an order of magnitude over current methods. We demonstrate how this method can be modified to specifically solve optimization challenges posed by the tuning of accelerators. This includes the addition of optimization constraints, objective preferences and costs related to changing accelerator parameters.
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Machine Learning Techniques for Optics Measurements and Corrections
Date: October 28, 2020 8:00 am
Speaker: Elena Fol (CERN)
Recently, the application of ML has grown in accelerator physics, in particular in the domain of diagnostics and control. One of the first applications of ML at the LHC is focused on optics measurements and corrections. Unsupervised Learning has been applied to automatic detection of beam position monitors faults to improve optics analysis, demonstrating successful results in operation. A novel MLbased approach for the estimation of magnet errors is developed, using supervised regression models trained on a large set of LHC optics simulations. Also, autoencoder neural networks have found their application in denoising of measurements data and reconstruction of missing data points. The results and future plans for these studies will be discussed following a brief introduction to relevant ML concepts.
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Superconducting RadioFrequency Cavity Fault Classification Using Machine Learning at Jefferson Laboratory
Date: October 23, 2020 1:00 pm
Speaker: Chris Tennant (Jefferson Laboratory)
We report on the development of machine learning models for classifying C100 superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity faults in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. CEBAF is a continuouswave recirculating linac utilizing 418 SRF cavities to accelerate electrons up to 12 GeV through 5passes. Of these, 96 cavities (12 cryomodules) are designed with a digital lowlevel RF system configured such that a cavity fault triggers waveform recordings of 17 RF signals for each of the 8 cavities in the cryomodule. Subject matter experts (SME) are able to analyze the collected timeseries data and identify which of the eight cavities faulted first and classify the type of fault. This information is used to find trends and strategically deploy mitigations to problematic cryomodules. However manually labeling the data is laborious and timeconsuming. By leveraging machine learning, near realtime – rather than postmortem – identification of the offending cavity and classification of the fault type has been implemented. We discuss the development and performance of the ML models as well as valuable lessons learned in bringing a ML system to deployment.
Analytical and Parametric Model Fitting for Inverse Problems, Data Reduction, and Pattern Recognition
Date: October 21, 2020 8:00 am
Speaker: Youssef Nashed (ANL, Stats Perform)
Many scientific and engineering challenges can be formulated as fitting a model to existing data. Whether it is comparing a scientific simulation to known experimental observations, finding a continuous representation of sparse/discrete data points, or the values of model parameters which generalize to unforeseen data examples given historical data; all these tasks share a common underlying principle of model fitting, but with different choices made in the model formulation (parametric or analytical) and the assumptions made about the data (acquisition scheme, noise to signal ratio, continuity, or information locality). In this talk I will highlight a few use cases under this framework. Specifically, I will address research conducted at Argonne National Laboratory for Xray image reconstruction problems, data reduction for scientific simulations, and deep learning approaches for replacing expensive iterative optimization. Additionally, I will present more recent work for sports computer vision applications that enable real time player detection, tracking, and activity prediction from broadcast video.
Deep Learning and Quantum Gravity
Date: October 15, 2020 4:00 pm
Speaker: Koji Hashimoto (Osaka University)
Formulating quantum gravity is one of the final goals of fundamental physics. Recent progress in string theory brought a concrete formulation called AdS/CFT correspondence, in which a gravitational spacetime emerges from lowerdimensional non gravitational quantum systems, but we still lack in understanding how the correspondence works. I discuss similarities between the quantum gravity and deep learning architecture, by regarding the neural network as a discretized spacetime. In particular, the questions such as, when, why and how a neural network can be a space or a spacetime, may lead to a novel way to look at machine learning. I implement concretely the AdS/CFT framework into a deep learning architecture, and show the emergence of a curved spacetime as a neural network, from a given training data of quantum systems.
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Bayesian Optimization and Machine Learning for Accelerating Scientific Discovery
Date: October 9, 2020 1:00 pm
Speaker: Stefano Ermon (Stanford)
Applications of AI in the physical sciences require new advances in representing, reasoning about, and acquiring knowledge from data and domain expertise. Motivated by these challenges, I will present new approaches for calibrating ML systems so that predicted probabilities are more reflective of realworld uncertainty, i.e., better capture what is or isn't known by the system. I will discuss approaches to automatically acquire data to reduce uncertainty through maximally informative experiments, focusing on the design of charging protocols for electric batteries and other challenging problems in science and engineering. Finally, I will discuss opportunities for incorporating domain knowledge to further accelerate the process.
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Physicsinformed machine learning for accelerated modeling and optimization of complex systems
Date: October 2, 2020 1:00 pm
Speaker: Paris Perdikaris (University of Pennsylvania)
The towering empirical success of machine learning is promising a pathway for transforming observations to actionable knowledge. Specific to modeling and optimizing complex physical and engineering systems, there is a need for methods that can seamlessly synthesize data of variable fidelity, leverage prior domain knowledge, respect the laws of physics, and provide robust predictions with quantified uncertainty. In this talk I will provide an overview of datadriven techniques that aim to address these needs, and highlight their advantages and limitations through the lens of different application studies. Specifically, we will discuss the effectiveness of Gaussian processes in integrating multifidelity data to accelerate the prediction of large scale computational models, as well as the potential of physicsinformed deep learning models in tackling a diverse range of forward and inverse problems in computational physics. Finally, I will also discuss the role of predictive uncertainty in closing the observationstopredictions loop as a proxy for judicious data acquisition and experimental design.
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Probabilistic Programming for Inverse Problems in Physical Sciences
Date: September 25, 2020 1:00 pm
Speaker: Atillim Gunes Baydin (University of Oxford)
Machine learning enables new approaches to inverse problems in many fields of science. We present a novel probabilistic programming framework that couples directly to existing scientific simulators through a crossplatform probabilistic execution protocol, which allows generalpurpose inference engines to record and control random number draws within simulators in a languageagnostic way. The execution of existing simulators as probabilistic programs enables highly interpretable posterior inference in the structured model defined by the simulator code base. We demonstrate the technique in particle physics, on a scientifically accurate simulation of the tau lepton decay, which is a key ingredient in establishing the properties of the Higgs boson. Inference efficiency is achieved via amortized inference where a deep recurrent neural network is trained to parameterize proposal distributions and control the stochastic simulator in a sequential importance sampling scheme, at a fraction of the computational cost of a Markov chain Monte Carlo baseline.
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Discovering Symbolic Models in Physical Systems using Deep Learning
Date: September 18, 2020 1:00 pm
Speaker: Shirley Ho (Flatiron Institute)
We develop a general approach to distill symbolic representations of a learned deep model by introducing strong inductive biases. We focus on Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). The technique works as follows: we first encourage sparse latent representations when we train a GNN in a supervised setting, then we apply symbolic regression to components of the learned model to extract explicit physical relations. We find the correct known equations, including force laws and Hamiltonians, can be extracted from the neural network. We then apply our method to a nontrivial cosmology examplea detailed dark matter simulationand discover a new analytic formula that can predict the concentration of dark matter from the mass distribution of nearby cosmic structures. The symbolic expressions extracted from the GNN using our technique also generalized to outofdistributiondata better than the GNN itself. Our approach offers alternative directions for interpreting neural networks and discovering novel physical principles from the representations they learn.
Anomaly Detection in Particle Accelerators using Autoencoders
Date: September 11, 2020 1:00 pm
Speaker: Jonathan Edelen (RadiaSoft, LLC)
The application of machine learning (ML) techniques for anomaly detection in particle accelerators has gained popularity in recent years. These efforts have ranged from the analysis of quenches in RF cavities [1, 2] and superconducting magnets [3] to anomalous beam position monitors [4], and even losses in rings [5]. Using ML for anomaly detection can be challenging owing to the inherent imbalance in the amount of data collected during normal operations as compared to during faults. Additionally, the data are not always labeled and therefore supervised learning is not possible. Autoencoders, neural networks that form a compressed representation and reconstruction of the input data, are a useful tool for such situations. Here we explore the use of autoencoders for two types of problems: dimensionality reduction and reconstruction analysis. In the former case, we study machine data from the Fermilab LINAC and correlate changes in the RF parameters to changes in beam loss. For the latter case, we also study the Fermilab LINAC but extend this work to the evaluation of magnet faults in the APS storage ring. [1] A. S. Nawaz, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lichtenberg, and H. Schlarb, “Selforganzied critical control for the european xfel using black box parameter identification for the quench detection system,” in 2016 3rd Conference on Control and FaultTolerant Systems (SysTol), Sep. 2016, pp. 196–201. [2] A. Nawaz, S. Pfeiffer, G. Lichtenberg, and P. Rostalski, “Anomaly detection for the european xfel using a nonlinear parity space method,” IFACPapersOnLine, vol. 51, no. 24, pp. 1379 – 1386, 2018, 10th IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection, Supervision and Safety for Technical Processes SAFEPROCESS 2018. [3] M. Wielgosz, A. Skoczea, and M. Mertik, “Using lstm recurrent neural networks for monitoring the lhc superconducting magnets,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol. 867, pp. 40 –50, 2017. [4] Elena Fol, “Evaluation of Machine Learning Methods for LHC Optics Measurements and Corrections Software” CERNTHESIS2017336, Aug 2017. [5] G. Valentino, R. Bruce, S. Redaelli, R. Rossi, P. Theodoropoulos, and S. JasterMerz, “Anomaly detection for beam loss maps in the large hadron collider,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 874, p. 012002, Jul 2017.
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MultiCryoGAN: Reconstruction of Continuous Conformations in CryoEM Using Generative Adversarial Networks
Date: September 4, 2020 1:00 pm
Speaker: Harshit Gupta
In this talk, I will present MultiCryoGAN, a deeplearningbased reconstruction method for cryoelectron microscopy (CryoEM). It can reconstruct continuous conformations of a biomolecule from CryoEM images in a fully unsupervised and standalone manner. CryoEM produces many noisy projections from separate instances of the same but randomly oriented biomolecule. Current methods rely on pose and conformation estimation which are inefficient for the reconstruction of continuous conformations that carries valuable information. MultiCryoGAN sidesteps the additional processing by casting the volume reconstruction into the distribution matching problem. By introducing a manifold mapping module, MultiCryoGAN can learn continuous structural heterogeneity without pose estimation nor clustering. It is also backed by a theoretical guarantee of recovery of the true conformations. This method can successfully reconstruct 3D protein complexes on synthetic 2D CryoEM datasets for both continuous and discrete structural variability scenarios.
Neuromorphic Computing: Where Hardware Meets AI
Date: August 21, 2020 10:00 am
Though neuromorphic systems were introduced decades ago, there has been a resurgence of interest in recent years due to the looming end of Moore's law, the end of Dennard scaling, and the tremendous success of AI and deep learning for a wide variety of applications. With this renewed interest, there is a diverse set of research ongoing in neuromorphic computing, ranging from novel hardware implementations, device and materials to the development of new training and learning algorithms. There are many potential advantages to neuromorphic systems that make them attractive in today's computing landscape, including the potential for very low power, efficient hardware that can perform neural network computation. In this talk, an overview of the current state of neuromorphic computing will be presented, including a brief background on neuromorphic models, algorithms, hardware, and applications in the literature. An approach for training neuromorphic systems will be described, and several realworld applications will be discussed.
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Sequenceguided protein structure determination using graph convolutional and recurrent networks
Date: August 14, 2020 1:00pm (remote)
Single particle imaging performed at cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) facilities, including the S2C2 at SLAC, now routinely outputs highresolution data for large proteins and their complexes. Building an atomic model into a cryoEM density map, however, remains challenging, particularly when no structure for the target protein is known a priori. Existing protocols for this type of task often rely on significant human intervention and can take hours to days to produce an output. Here, we present a fully automated, templatefree model building approach that is based entirely on neural networks. We use a graph convolutional network (GCN) to generate an embedding from a set of rotamerbased amino acid identities and candidate 3dimensional Calpha locations. Starting from this embedding, we use a bidirectional long shortterm memory (LSTM) module to order and label the candidate identities and atomic locations consistent with the input protein sequence to obtain a protein structural model. Our approach paves the way for determining protein structures from cryoEM densities at a fraction of the time of existing approaches and without the need for human intervention.
Machine Learningbased Beam Size Stabilization at ALS
Date: August 7, 2020 1:00pm (remote)
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Highdimensional geometry and the landscapes of deep neural networks
Date: July 31, 2020 1:00pm (remote)
Speaker: Stanislav Fort (Stanford)
When we train a deep neural network on a dataset using gradient descent, we are exploring an extremely highdimensional landscape of weight configurations looking for a rare solution to our task, while using only the local gradients as a guide. Given how complicated these landscape can be, how exactly do deep neural networks manage to converge to good, generalizable solutions at all, and can we say anything more concrete about the types of landscapes they navigate during training? In this talk, I will focus on recent geometric insights into the structure of neural network loss landscapes  I will discuss a phenomenological approach to modelling their largescale structure [1,2], and its consequences for ensembling, calibration, uncertainty estimates and Bayesian methods in general [3]. I will conclude with an outlook on several interesting open questions in understanding artificial deep networks. [1] Fort, Stanislav, and Adam Scherlis. “The Goldilocks zone: Towards better understanding of neural network loss landscapes.” Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Vol. 33. 2019. arXiv 1807.02581, [2] Stanislav Fort, and Stanislaw Jastrzebski. “Large Scale Structure of Neural Network Loss Landscapes.” Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 32 (NeurIPS 2019). arXiv 1906.04724, [3] S Fort, H Hu, B Lakshminarayanan. “Deep Ensembles: A Loss Landscape Perspective.” arXiv 1912.02757
Learning Hyperbolic Representations for Unsupervised 3D Segmentation
Date: June 12, 2020 1:00pm (remote)
Speaker: Joy Hsu (Stanford)
There exists a need for unsupervised 3D segmentation on complex volumetric data in the case of limited annotations or for tasks of object discovery  especially in biomedical fields. We efficient learn representations for unsupervised segmentation through hyperbolic embeddings that model hierarchy innate to 3D input. Our method learns hyperbolic representation through a novel gyroplane convolutional layer as well as a hierarchical triplet loss, and retrieves multilevel segmentations from clustering on hyperbolic space. We show the effectiveness of our method on three biologicallyinspired datasets, including one on cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM), with images supplied by SLAC.
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Modelbased machine learning: from image restoration to 3D particle segmentation
Date: May 21st, 2020 1:00pm (remote)
Speaker: Jizhou Li (Stanford)
In this talk, I will present my recent efforts on the modelbased machine learning with applications to two typical problems: 1) image restoration in fluorescence microscopy. The restoration process is parameterized as a linear combination of elementary functions and then optimized by minimizing a robust estimate of the true mean squared error through modeling the noise distribution. This way allows us to get the optimal results by simply solving a linear system of equations, without training through a large set of image pairs. 2) 3D particle segmentation in nanoCT images of lithiumion battery cathodes. The shape of particles is embedded into the UNet segmentation network to improve the performance, and a multiview fusion strategy of 2D results is taken to reduce the annotation efforts and training uncertainty.
Containers! Containers! Containers!
Date: April 30th, 2020 1:00 pm (remote)
Speaker: Yeeting Li
I'll do a walkthrough of container usage; from why to how and everything in between.
Link to the zoom recording
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PLAsTiCC: Convincing other people to solve your problems
Date: February 20th, 2020 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002 (Toluca)
Speaker: Kara Ponder (Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics)
The Photometric LSST Astronomical TimeSeries Classification Challenge (PLAsTiCC) tackled a major issue for the upcoming Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST): how to classify the hundreds of thousands of transients and variables that will be observed over 10 years. To prepare for this massive amount of data, the PLAsTiCC team produced the the largest public data set of synthetic astronomical light curves to date. The problem was presented to a broad data science community using the Kaggle platform and was able to engage more than 1000 teams in this photometric classification task. In this talk, I will show the steps we took towards building an effective data challenge that brought together the variable and transient science communities. I will briefly describe the winning methods, discuss the future of PLAsTiCC and demonstrate how its results are already influencing the astronomical community.
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Realtime classification of explosive transients using deep recurrent neural networks
Date: April 27th, 2020 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002 (Toluca)
Speaker: Daniel Muthukrishna
Astronomical transients are stellar objects that become temporarily brighter on various timescales and have led to some of the most significant discoveries in cosmology and astronomy. New and upcoming widefield surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will record millions of multiwavelength transient alerts each night. To meet this demand, we have developed a novel machine learning approach, RAPID (Realtime Automated Photometric Identification using Deep learning), that automatically classifies transients as a function of time. Using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) with Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs), we are able to quickly classify multichannel, sparse, timeseries datasets into 12 different astrophysical types. The classification accuracy improves over the lifetime of the transient as more photometric data becomes available. In this talk, I will explain the main parts of our deep neural network architecture and describe our approach's classification performance on simulated and real data streams.
Shape learning
Date: February 13th, 2020 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002 (Toluca)
Speaker: Nina Miolane (Stanford)
In medicine, the advances in bioimaging techniques have enabled us to access the 3D shapes of a variety of structures: organs, cells, proteins. Since biological shapes are related to physiological functions, biomedical research is poised to incorporate more shape data. In experimental physics, elementary particles traversing a detector leave "tracks" whose shapes are characteristics of their properties and interactions. Particle physics research also analyzes shape data to advance fundamental science. Therefore, two scientific fields ask the same machine learning question: how can we build quantitative descriptions of shapes and shape variabilities?
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GPU, Slurm and SLACStanfordScientific Data Facility
Speaker: YeeTing Lee (SLAC)
https://confluence.slac.stanford.edu/display/SCSPub/Slurm+Batch
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Black Box Variational Inference: Scalable, Generic Bayesian Computation and its Applications
Date: August 12th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 1350 (Trinity)
Speaker: Rajesh Ranganath (NYU)
Pushing the Limits of Fluorescence Microscopy with adaptive imaging and machine learning
Date: September 5th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002 (Toluca)
Speaker: Dr. Loic A. Royer (Chan Zuckerberg Biohub)
Machine learning applications of quantum annealing in high energy physics
Date: August 22nd 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002 (Toluca)
Speaker: Alexander Zlokapa (Caltech)
NASA Ames Data Sciences Group Overview
Date: August 15th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002 (Toluca)
Speaker: Dr. Nikunj Oza (NASA Ames Research Center)
A Topology Layer for Machine Learning
Date: August 12th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 1350 (Trinity)
Speaker: Brad Nelson (Stanford/SLAC)
Accelerating Data Science Workflows with RAPIDS
Date: July 24th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 1350
Speaker: Zahra Ronaghi (NVIDIA)
Photometric classification of astronomical transients for LSST
Date: July 25th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002
Speaker: Kyle Boone (Berkeley)
Analyzing and Applying Uncertainty in Deep Learning
Date: June 27th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002 (Zoom: https://stanford.zoom.us/j/954139340 )
Speaker: Dustin Tran
Datadriven Discovery of the Governing Equations of Complex Physical Systems
Date: June 20th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002 (Zoom: https://stanford.zoom.us/j/8036931498 )
Speaker: Paulo Alves
Sparse Submanifold Convolution for Physics 2D/3D Image Analysis
Date: June 11th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002
Speaker: Laura Domine
Applying Convolutional Neural Networks to MicroBooNE
Date: June 6th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002
Speaker: Taritree Wongjirad
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Machine Learning, Datascience and Neutrino Physics at Argonne’s Leadership Computing Facility
Date: February 28th 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002
Speaker: Corey Adams
Deep Learning for Particle Track Finding in High Energy Physics
Date: February 21st 3:00pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002
Speaker: Steve Farrell
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Machine Learning for medical applications of Physics
Date: January 16th at 12:30pm at Bldg 53 Rm 4002
Speaker: Carlo Mancini (INFN, Rome)
Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) techniques are applied to a vast number of cases, such as human face recognition, image segmentation, selfdriving cars, and even playing Go. In this talk, I present our first steps in using DNNs in medical applications, i.e.: to segment Magnetic Resonance (MR) images and to reproduce the final state of a low energy nuclear interaction model, BLOB (Boltzmann Langevin One Body). The first application tries to give an answer to the necessity, expressed by clinicians, of identifying rectal cancer patients who do not need radical surgery after the chemoradiotherapy prescribed by the clinical protocol. The second one aims at exploring the possibility of using a Variational Auto Encoder (VAE) to simulate accurately low energy nuclear interactions in order to reduce the computation time with respect to the full model. Once trained, the VAE could be used in Monte Carlo simulation of patients’ treatments with ion beams.
Machine Learning synthetic data, scanning probe data, and reciprocal space data on quantum materials
Date: October 19 at 1pm (note change in time!)
Speaker: EunAh Kim (Cornell)
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LocaltoGlobal Methods for Topological Data Analysis
Date: October 1, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: Brad Nelson
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Experience with a Virtual MultiSlit Phase Space Diagnostic at Fermilab’s FAST Facility
Date: August 27, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: Auralee Edelen
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A Novel Approach  IoT Device Virtualization using ML
Date: July 19, 2018 at 11am (Note special time!)
Speaker: Knowthings
Sparsity/Undersampling Tradeoffs in Compressed Sensing
Date: July 9, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: Hatef Monajemi (Stanford)
Learned predictive models: integrating largescale simulations and experiments using deep learning
Date: June 25, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: Brian Spears (LLNL)
Abstract: Across scientific missions, we regularly need to develop accurate models that closely predict experimental observation. Our team is developing a new class of model, called the learned predictive model, that captures theorydriven simulation, but also improves by exposure to experimental observation. We begin by designing specialized deep neural networks that can learn the behavior of complicated simulation models from exceptionally large simulation databases. Later, we improve, or elevate, the trained models by incorporating experimental data using a technique called transfer learning. The training and elevation process improves our predictive accuracy, provides a quantitative measure of uncertainty, and helps us cope with limited experimental data volumes. To drive this procedure, we have also developed a complex computational workflow that can generate hundreds of thousands to billions of simulated training examples and can steer the subsequent training and elevation process. These workflow tasks require a heterogeneous highperformance computing environment supporting computation on CPUs, GPUs, and sometimes specialized, lowprecision processors. We will present a global view of our deep learning efforts, our computational workflows, and some implications that this computational work has for current and future largescale computing platforms.
Rapid Gaussian Process Training via Structured LowRank Kernel Approximation of Gridded Measurements
Date: June 4, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: Franklin Fuller
Abstract: The cubic scaling of matrix inversion with the number of data points is the main computational cost in Gaussian Process (GP) regression. Sparse GP approaches reduce the complexity of matrix inversion to linear complexity by making an optimized low rank approximation to the kernel, but the quality of the approximation depends (and scales with) how many "inducing" or representative points are allowed. When the problem at hand allows the kernel to be decomposed into a kronecker product of lower dimensional kernels, many more inducing points can be feasibly processed by exploiting the kronecker factorization, resulting in a much higher quality fit. Kronecker factorizations suffer from exponentially scaling with the dimension of the input, however, which has limited this approach to problems of only a few input dimensions. It was recently shown how this problem can be circumvented by making an additional lowrank approximation across input dimensions, resulting in an approach that scales linearly in both data points and the input dimensionality. We explore a special case of this recent work wherein the observed data are measured on a complete multidimensional grid (not necessarily uniformly spaced), which is a is very common scenario in scientific measurement environments. In this special case, the problem decomposes over axes of the input grid, making the cost linearly scale mainly with the largest axis of the grid. We apply this approach to deconvolve linearly mixed spectroscopic signals and are able to optimize kernel hyper parameters on datasets containing billions of measurements in minutes with a laptop.
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Machine learning applications for hospitals
Date: May 21, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: David Scheinker
Abstract: Academic hospitals and particle accelerators have a lot in common. Both are complex organizations; employ numerous staff and scientists; deliver a variety of services; research how to improve the delivery of those services; and do it all with a variety of large expensive machines. My group focuses on helping the Stanford hospitals, mostly the Children's Hospital, seek to improve: throughput, decisionsupport, resource management, innovation, and education. I'll present brief overviews of a variety of MLbased approaches to projects in each of these areas. For example, integer programming to optimize surgical scheduling and Neural Networks to interpret continuoustime waveform monitor data. I will conclude with a broader vision for how modern analytics methodology could potentially transform healthcare delivery. More information on the projects to be discussed is available at surf.stanford.edu/projects
Beyond Data and Model Parallelism for Deep Neural Networks
Date: May 7, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: Zhihao Jia
Abstract: Existing deep learning systems parallelize the training process of deep neural networks (DNNs) by using simple strategies, such as data and model parallelism, which usually results in suboptimal parallelization performance for large scale training. In this talk, I will first formalize the space of all possible parallelization strategies for training DNNs. After that, I will present FlexFlow, a deep learning framework that automatically finds efficient parallelization strategies by using a guided random search algorithm to explore the space of all possible parallelization strategies. Finally, I will show that FlexFlow significantly outperforms stateoftheart parallelization approaches by increasing training throughput, reducing communication costs, and achieving improved scalability.
Xray spectrometer data processing with unsupervised clustering (Sideband signal seeking)
Date: April 9, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: Guanqun Zhou
Abstract: Online spectrometer plays an important role in the characterization of the freeelectron laser (FEL) pulse spectrum. With the help of beam synchronization acquisition (BSA) system, the spectrum of independent shot can be stored, which helps the downstream scientific researchers a lot. However, because of spontaneous radiation, FEL intrinsic fluctuations and other stochastic effects, the data from spectrometer cannot be fully utilized. A specific case is sideband signal resolution in hardxray selfseeding experiment. During the seminar, I will present my exploration of employing unsupervised clustering algorithm to mine the latent information in the spectrometer data. In this way, sideband signal starts to appear.
Experience with FEL taper tuning using reinforcement learning and clustering
Date: April 2, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: Juhao Wu
Abstract: LCLS, world’s first hard Xray Free Electron Laser (FEL) is serving multiple users. It commonly happens that different scientific research requires very different parameters of the XRay pulses, therefore setting up the system in a timing fashion meeting these requests is a nontrivial task. Artificial intelligence is not only very helpful to conduct well defined task towards definitive goal, it also helps to find new operating regime generating unexpected great results. Here in this talk, we will report experience with FEL taper tuning using reinforcement learning and clustering. Such study opens up novel taper configuration such as a zigzag taper which takes full advantages of the filamentation of the electron bunch phase space in the deep saturated regime.
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Statistical Learning of Reduced Kinetic Monte Carlo Models of Complex Chemistry from Molecular Dynamics
Date: Feb. 26, 2018 at 3pm
Speaker: Qian Yang (Stanford)
Complex chemical processes, such as the decomposition of energetic materials and the chemistry of planetary interiors, are typically studied using largescale molecular dynamics simulations that can run for weeks on high performance parallel machines. These computations may involve thousands of atoms forming hundreds of molecular species and undergoing thousands of reactions. It is natural to wonder whether this wealth of data can be utilized to build more efficient, interpretable, and predictive models of complex chemistry. In this talk, we will use techniques from statistical learning to develop a framework for constructing Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) models from molecular dynamics data. We will show that our KMC models can not only extrapolate the behavior of the chemical system by as much as an order of magnitude in time, but can also be used to study the dynamics of entirely different chemical trajectories with a high degree of fidelity. Then, we will discuss a new and efficient datadriven method using L1regularization for automatically reducing our learned KMC models from thousands of reactions to a smaller subset that effectively reproduces the dynamics of interest.
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Machine Learning for Jet Physics at the Large Hadron Collider
Date: February 12, 2018 at 3pm
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Date: Wednesday Jan. 24, 2018 at 3pm5pm in Mammoth B533036 (Note time and place!)
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In situ visualization with taskbased parallelism
Date: Nov. 27, 2017 at 3pm
Speaker: Alan Heirich
Abstract: This short paper describes an experimental prototype of in situ visualization in a taskbased parallel programming framework. A set of reusable visualization tasks were composed with an existing simulation. The visualization tasks include a local OpenGL renderer, a parallel image compositor, and a display task. These tasks were added to an existing fluidparticleradiation simulation and weak scaling tests were run on up to 512 nodes of the Piz Daint supercomputer. Benchmarks showed that the visualization components scaled and did not reduce the simulation throughput. The compositor latency increased logarithmically with increasing node count.
Data Reconstruction Using Deep Neural Networks for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detectors
Date: Oct. 16, 2017 at 3pm
Speaker: Kazuhiro Terao
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have found a vast number of applications ranging from automated human face recognition, realtime object detection for selfdriving cars, teaching a robot Chinese, and even playing Go. In this talk, I present our first steps in exploring the use of DNNs to the task of analyzing neutrino events coming from Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPC), in particular the MicroBooNE detector. LArTPCs consist of a large volume of liquid argon sandwiched between a cathode and anode wire planes. These detectors are capable of recording images of charged particle tracks with breathtaking resolution. Such detailed information will allow LArTPCs to perform accurate particle identification and calorimetry, making it the detector of choice for many current and future neutrino experiments. However, analyzing such images can be challenging, requiring the development of many algorithms to identify and assemble features of the events in order to identify and remove cosmicrayinduced particles and reconstruct neutrino interactions. This talk shows the current status of DNN applications and our future direction.
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Towards a cosmology emulator using Generative Adversarial Networks
Date: Oct 3, 2017 at 2pm
Speaker: Mustafa Mustafa
The application of deep learning techniques to generative modeling is renewing interest in using high dimensional density estimators as computationally inexpensive emulators of fullyfledged simulations. These generative models have the potential to make a dramatic shift in the field of scientific simulations, but for that shift to happen we need to study the performance of such generators in the precision regime needed for science applications. To this end, in this talk we apply Generative Adversarial Networks to the problem of generating cosmological weak lensing convergence maps. We show that our generator network produces maps that are described by, with high statistical confidence, the same summary statistics as the fully simulated maps.
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Optimal Segmentation with Pruned Dynamic Programming
Date: Sept. 12, 2017 at 2pm
Speaker: Jeffrey Scargle (NASA )
Bayesian Blocks (1207.5578) is an O(N**2) dynamic programming algorithm to compute exact global optimal segmentations of sequential data of arbitrary mode and dimensionality. Multivariate data, generalized block shapes, and higher dimensional data are easily treated. Incorporating a simple pruning method yields a (still exact) O(N) algorithm allowing fast analysis of series of ~100M data points. Sample applications include analysis of X and gammaray time series, identification of GCislands in the human genome, dataadaptive triggers and histograms, and elucidating the Cosmic Web from 3D galaxy redshift data.
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Fast automated analysis of strong gravitational lenses with convolutional neural networks
Date: Sept. 12, 2017 at 2pm
Speaker: Yashar Hezaveh
Strong gravitational lensing is a phenomenon in which the image of a distant galaxy appears highly distorted due to the deflection of its light rays by the gravity of a more nearby, intervening galaxy. We often see multiple distinct arcshaped images of the background galaxy around the intervening (lens) galaxy, just like images in a funhouse mirror. Strong lensing gives astrophysicist a unique opportunity to carry out different investigations, including mapping the detailed distribution of dark matter, or measuring the expansion rate of the universe. All these great sciences, however, require a detailed knowledge of the distribution of matter in the lensing galaxies, measured from the distortions in the images. This has been traditionally performed with maximumlikelihood lens modeling, a procedure in which simulated observations are generated and compared to the data in a statistical way. The parameters controlling the simulations are then explored with samplers like MCMC. This is a time and resource consuming procedure, requiring hundreds of hours of computer and human time for a single system. In this talk, I will discuss our recent work in which we showed that deep convolutional neural networks can solve this problem more than 10 million times faster: about 0.01 seconds per system on a single GPU. I will also review our method for quantifying the uncertainties of the parameters obtained with these networks. With the advent of upcoming sky surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, we are anticipating the discovery of tens of thousands of new gravitational lenses. Neural networks can be an essential tool for the analysis of such high volumes of data.
MacroBase: A Search Engine for Fast Data Streams
Date: Sept. 5, 2017 at 2pm
Speaker: Sahaana Suri (Stanford)
While data volumes generated by sensors, automated process, and application telemetry continue to rise, the capacity of human attention remains limited. To harness the potential of these large scale data streams, machines must step in by processing, aggregating, and contextualizing significant behaviors within these data streams. This talk will describe progress towards achieving this goal via MacroBase, a new analytics engine for prioritizing attention in this largescale "fast data" that has begun to deliver results in several production environments. Key to this progress are new methods for constructing cascades of analytic operators for classification, aggregation, and highdimensional feature selection; when combined, these cascades yield new opportunities for dramatic scalability improvements via endtoend optimization for streams spanning timeseries, video, and structured data. MacroBase is a core component of the Stanford DAWN project (http://dawn.cs.stanford.edu/), a new research initiative designed to enable more usable and efficient machine learning infrastructure.
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ObjectCentric Machine Learning
Date: Aug. 29, 2017 at 2pm
Speaker: Leo Guibas (Stanford)
Deep knowledge of the world is necessary if we are to have autonomous and intelligent agents and artifacts that can assist us in everyday activities, or even carry out tasks entirely independently. One way to factorize the complexity of the world is to associate information and knowledge with stable entities, animate or inanimate, such as persons or vehicles, etc  what we generally refer to as "objects."
In this talk I'll survey a number of recent efforts whose aim is to create and annotate reference representations for (inanimate) objects based on 3D models with the aim of delivering such information to new observations, as needed. In this objectcentric view, the goal is to learn about object geometry, appearance, articulation, materials, physical properties, affordances, and functionality. We acquire such information in a multitude of ways, both from crowdsourcing and from establishing direct links between models and signals, such as images, videos, and 3D scans  and through these to language and text. The purity of the 3D representation allows us to establish robust maps and correspondences for transferring information among the 3D models themselves  making our current 3D repository, ShapeNet, a true network.
While neural network architectures have had tremendous impact in image understanding and language processing, their adaptation to 3D data is not entirely straightforward. The talk will also briefly discuss current approaches in designing deep nets appropriate for operating directly on irregular 3D data representations, such as meshes or point clouds, both for analysis and synthesis  as well as ways to learn object function from observing multiple action sequences involving objects  in support of the above program.
Reconstruction Algorithms for NextGeneration Imaging: MultiTiered Iterative Phasing for Fluctuation Xray Scattering and SingleParticle Diffraction
Date: Aug. 15, 2017 at 2pm
Location: Tulare (B534006) (NOTE CHANGE IN ROOM!)
Speaker: Jeffrey Donatelli (CAMERA, Berkeley)
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Exploratory Studies in Neural Networkbased Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators
Date: Aug 1, 2017 at 2pm
Speaker: Auralee Edelen (CSU)
Particle accelerators are host to myriad control challenges: they involve a multitude of interacting systems, are often subject to tight performance demands, in many cases exhibit nonlinear behavior, sometimes are not wellcharacterized due to practical and/or fundamental limitations, and should be able to run for extended periods of time with minimal interruption. One avenue toward improving the way these systems are controlled is to incorporate techniques from machine learning. Within machine learning, neural networks in particular are appealing because they are highly flexible, they are wellsuited to problems with nonlinear behavior and large parameter spaces, and their recent success in other fields (driven largely by algorithmic advances, greater availability of large data sets, and improvements in high performance computing resources) is an encouraging indicator that they are now technologically mature enough to be fruitfully applied to particle accelerators. This talk will highlight a few recent efforts in this area that were focused on exploring neural networkbased approaches for modeling and control of several particle accelerator subsystems, both through simulation and experimental studies.
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Estimating behindthemeter solar generation with existing measurement infrastructure
Date: July 11, 2017 at 2pm
Speaker: Emre Kara
Realtime PV generation information is crucial for distribution system operations such as switching,
stateestimation, and voltage management. However, most behindthemeter solar installations are not
monitored.Typically, the only information available to the distribution system operator is the installed
capacity of solar behind each meter; though in many cases even the presence of solar may be unknown.
We present a method for disaggreagating behindthemeter solar generation using only information that
is already available in most distribution systems. Specifically, we present a contextually supervised source
separation strategy adopted to address the behindthemeter solar disaggregation problem. We evaluate
the model sensitivities to different input parameters such as the number of solar proxy measurements, number
of days in the training set, and region size.
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Development and Application of Online Optimization Algorithms
Date: June 27, 2017 at 3pm
Location: Kings River, B52306 (Note change in time and place!)
Speaker: Xiabiao Huang
Automated tuning is an online optimization process. It can be faster and more efficient than manual tuning and can lead to better performance. It may also substitute or improve upon model based methods. Noise tolerance is a fundamental challenge to online optimization algorithms. We discuss our experience in developing a high efficiency, noisetolerant optimization algorithm, the RCDS method, and the successful application of the algorithm to various reallife accelerator problems. Experience with a few other online optimization algorithms are also discussed.
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Machine Learning at NERSC: Past, Present, and Future
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